[50] It is estimated that the epischurans filter as much as a thousand cubic kilometers of water a year, or the lake's entire volume every twenty-three years.[51]. In 1629, Yakov Khripunov set off from Tomsk to find a rumored silver mine. [69] Most sponges in the lake are typically green when alive because of symbiotic chlorophytes (zoochlorella), but can also be brownish or yellowish. About 90% of the Lake Baikal ostracods are endemic,[55] meaning that there are c. 200 endemic species. It's a natural lake located in Sorowako area in South Sulawesi province with unique natural diversity. [114][115], The first European to reach the lake is said to have been Kurbat Ivanov in 1643.[116]. Near the village of Mal'ta, some 160 km northwest of the lake, remains of a young human male known as MA-1 or "Mal'ta Boy" are indications of local habitation by the Mal'ta–Buret' culture ca. In addition, transverse winds blow locally and over shorter distances. [citation needed], In 1638, Perfilyev crossed from the Angara over the Ilim portage to the Lena River and went downstream as far as Olyokminsk. 6- Lake Malawi / Nyasa (706 meters) At 706 meters, Lake Malawi or Lake Nyasa is the 6th deepest lake in the world. Also known as the "blue eye of Siberia", Lake Baikal is located in Southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast. [54] These conspicuous and common amphipods are essentially carnivores (will also take detritus), and can reach a body length up to 7 cm (2.8 in). Somewhat crescent shaped, it is in the southern Siberia area of Russia. [5][6] With 23,615.39 km3 (5,670 cu mi) of fresh water,[1] it contains more water than all of the North American Great Lakes combined. [31] The invasive species Elodea canadensis was introduced to the lake in the 1950s. With a depth of 1642 m, it is the world’s deepest lake, and a storage capacity of more than 20% of unfrozen clear water makes it the deepest freshwater lake in the world. [111], After enrichment, only 10% of the uranium-derived radioactive material would be exported to international customers,[111] leaving 90% near the Lake Baikal region for storage. This UNESCO World Heritage Site is the deepest lake in the world, at 1,642 metres. The lake is 113 miles long and 37 miles wide. About 1647, he repeated the trip, obtained guides, and visited a 'Tsetsen Khan' near Ulan Bator. The lake has so much volume to it that it is also recognized as the worlds most voluminous lake, it truly holds over 20% of the worlds total unfrozen freshwater. [38] Although named after the lake, both the Baikal teal and Baikal bush warbler are widespread in eastern Asia. [34] More than 400 diatom species, both benthic and planktonic, are found in the lake, and about half of these are endemic to Baikal; however, significant taxonomic uncertainties remain for this group.[34]. Crater Lake in the Cascade Range, southwestern Oregon. photo: Jason Rogers / Wikicommons Despite the impressive depths of the other lakes on the list, Lake Baikal has them all beat. They are also endemic to the Lake Baikal basin. King, M.I. In the past, the Baikal was referred to by many Russians as the "Baikal Sea" (море Байкал, More Baikal), rather than merely "Lake Baikal" (озеро Байкал, Ozero Baikal). [46] Beyond members of Cottoidea, there are few endemic fish species in the lake basin. Martens; Schön; Meisch; and Horne (2008). Also known as the “blue eye of Siberia”, Lake Baikal is located in Southern Siberia the Russo-Mongolian border. At 5,387 feet (1,642 meters) the Baikal holds over 22% of the planet's liquid freshwater - more than all the Great Lakes of North America combined. The goal was to export 190 million liters of water to China even though the lake had been experiencing historically low water levels. [34] Except for Ulothrix, there are endemic Baikal species in all these green algae genera. [52] The "gigantism" of some Baikal amphipods, which has been compared to that seen in Antarctic amphipods, has been linked to the high level of dissolved oxygen in the lake. [18][19] Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected in the near future. Search Results. At the northern part of the lake, Baikalplan (a German NGO) built together with Russians in 2009 the Frolikha Adventure Coastline Track, a 100 km (62 mi)-long long-distance trail as an example for sustainable development of the region. (1997). Paradina; Kulikova; Suturin; and Saibatalova (2003). In 1648, Ivan Galkin built an ostrog on the Barguzin River which became a center for eastward expansion. This body of water is both the largest and deepest lake in the world and measures 1,642 metres deep, while it contains around 20% of the unfrozen fresh surface water in the world. [101], Russian oil pipelines state company Transneft[102] was planning to build a trunk pipeline that would have come within 800 m (2,600 ft) of the lake shore in a zone of substantial seismic activity. The most popular trail starts in Listvyanka and goes along the Baikal coast to Bolshoye Goloustnoye. [85] Viktor Grigorov's Grand Baikal in Irkutsk is one of the investors, who planned to build three hotels, creating 570 jobs. The lake served as an important stopping point on the Silk Road, and medieval settlements have been discovered in the shallow areas of the lake from times when the water level was lower. The marsh thistle (Cirsium palustre) is found here at the eastern limit of its geographic range. [11][12] It is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, as its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). The lake’s great depth and the archaeological richness of the area have stimulated researchers’ and treasure hunters’ curiosity; from time to time, expeditions are launched in hopes of finding a “Kyrgyz Atlantis”—ancient ruins that supposedly lie in deeper areas of the lake. Molecular evolution of the cottoid fish endemic to Lake Baikal deduced from nuclear DNA evidence. Commercial fishing and tourism to the Caspian shore play a vital role in the economies of the surrounding countries. Their primitive sounding device … This made it difficult for other Russians to enter the area. 2. Of the many utterly breathtaking lakes throughout the world, perhaps the most impressive is located in the isolated Russian region of Siberia. [citation needed]. But the southernmost third plunges down to an average depth of about 1,000 feet (300 meters). Since the Stone Age, human communities on the shores of the lake have fed themselves by fishing there. The lake became the site of the minor engagement between the Czechoslovak legion and the Red Army in 1918. It consists of 192 optical modules. Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Consolidated Research Group on Marine Geosciences (CRG-MG), University of Barcelona, Spain; Limnological Institute of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russian Federation; State Science Research Navigation-Hydrographic Institute of the Ministry of Defense, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation", "On the present state of the ecological system of lake Baikal", "Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in Lake Baikal and its relationship to body size", "Lake Baikal – A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies", "Lake Baikal – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Lake Baikal: Protection of a unique ecosystem", "Waders of the Selenga delta, Lake Baikal, eastern Siberia", "Sublacustrine mud volcanoes and methane seeps caused by dissociation of gas hydrates in Lake Baikal", 10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0631:SMVAMS>2.0.CO;2, "Lake Baikal: the great blue eye of Siberia", "Structure of epiphyton communities on Lake Baikal submerged macrophytes", European bison in Russia – past, present and future, "Животный мир Байкала. [59] In general, Baikal snails are thin-shelled and small. [78], In July 2008, Russia sent two small submersibles, Mir-1 and Mir-2, to descend 1,592 m (5,223 ft) to the bottom of Lake Baikal to conduct geological and biological tests on its unique ecosystem. [111], An enrichment center was constructed in the 2010s. [25] It is caught, smoked, and then sold widely in markets around the lake. The wind on the exposed lake was so cold, many people died, freezing in place until spring thaw. This activity is most popular on Buryatia side of Baikal (Ust-Barguzin). The ice season ends in mid-April. Озеро Байкал: экология. Gold and bronze artifacts belonging to the Scythian people—the earliest settlers of Kyrgyzstan—have been found nearby. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8(3): 415–22. Lake Baikal is the worlds oldest and deepest lake with a depth of 5,336 feet deep. Somewhat crescent shaped, it is in the southern Siberia area of Russia. It is also the deepest lake on His men soon began plundering both Russians and natives. The lake’s Kyrgyz name, Ysyk-köl, means “Hot Lake,” as it never freezes, even though winter temperatures in the area regularly reach −15 °F (−26 °C). Next spring, he tried to occupy Nerchensk, but was forced by his men to join Stephanov on the Amur. [60] Bivalve diversity is lower with more than 30 species; about half of these, all in the families Euglesidae, Pisidiidae, and Sphaeriidae, are endemic (the only other family in the lake is the Unionidae with a single nonendemic species). [39][40], Fewer than 65 native fish species occur in the lake basin, but more than half of these are endemic. The ice itself has a transparency of one meter depth, having different patterns of crevasses, bubbles, and sounds. [17] At 636 km (395 mi) long and 79 km (49 mi) wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km2 (12,248 sq mi), and is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m (5,387 ft). The Barguzin (named after the Barguzin river) blows northeast in the spring. There are many deep lakes in the world. It is the deepest continental water body with a maximum depth of 5,315 feet (1,620 m) and a total surface area of 12,200 square miles (31,500 square km). Fault-controlled accommodation zones rising to depths about 300 m (980 ft) separate the basins. [33], Submerged macrophytic vascular plants are mostly absent, except in some shallow bays along the shores of Lake Baikal. Russian, U.S., and Japanese cooperative studies of deep-drilling core sediments in the 1990s provide a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 6.7 million years. The World's Deepest Lake Lake Baikal in southern Russia is the world's deepest lake. [90] Baikal has always been popular in Russia and CIS-countries, but for the last few years[when?] The lake gets its characteristic milky turquoise color from the high concentration of rock flour suspended in the water from the glacier. They recorded that the lake was a "huge sea" (hanhai) and designated it the North Sea (Běihǎi) of the semimythical Four Seas. Evans, J.A. [30], Stormy weather on the lake is common, especially during the summer and fall, and can result in waves as high as 4.5 m (15 ft). They are often abundant in shallow waters, where they are typically less than 2 cm (1 in) long, but in deeper parts of the lake, the largest, Baikaloplana valida, can reach up to 30 cm (1 ft) when outstretched. For other uses, see, Cancelled East Siberia-Pacific Ocean oil pipeline. [73] Little was known to Europeans about the lake until Russia expanded into the area in the 17th century. Sherbakov; Kamaltynov; Ogarkov; and Verheyen (1998). How the seals’ ancestors arrived in Lake Baikal remains a mystery, since the lake lies hundreds of miles inland. The lake has so much volume to it that it is also recognized as the worlds most voluminous lake, it truly holds over 20% of the worlds total unfrozen freshwater. Lake Baikal holds many other titles. [92] Environmental advocacy for the lake began in the late 1950s. Lying at an elevation of 5,270 feet (1,606 meters) in the Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan is Lake Ysyk, one of the world’s largest alpine lakes. [citation needed] An ice route around Olkhon is around 200 km. The plant bleached paper using chlorine and discharged waste directly into Lake Baikal. It sits on the Argentina-Chile border and is fed by the O’Higgins Glacier, which flows into it from the west. [77], As the railway was built, a large hydrogeographical expedition headed by F.K. ; Kamaltynov, R.M. The lake is surrounded by mountains; the Baikal Mountains on the north shore, the Barguzin Range on the northeastern shore, and the taiga are protected as a national park. UNESCO declared Lake Baikal a World Heritage Site in 1996.[16]. Beginning in 1956, the impounding of the Irkutsk Dam on the Angara River raised the level of the lake by 1.4 m (4.6 ft). Kaygorodova, I.A. The lake is divided into three basins: North, Central, and South, with depths about 900 m (3,000 ft), 1,600 m (5,200 ft), and 1,400 m (4,600 ft), respectively. Part of the Fraser River located in British Columbia, Quesnel Lake is a glacial lake. [79][80] Russian scientist and federal politician Artur Chilingarov, the leader of the mission, took part in the Mir dives[81] as did Russian leader Vladimir Putin. This list contains all lakes whose maximum depth is reliably known to exceed 400 metres (1,300 ft) Geologically, the Caspian Sea, like the Black and Mediterranean seas, is a remnant of the ancient Tethys Ocean.The deepest area is oceanic rather than continental crust. 24,000 BP. The World's Deepest Lakes At 1,943 feet (592 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and one of the deepest in the world. Worldwide, there are 37 lakes known to be at least 1300 feet or 400 meters deep. They have little effect on the lake's temperature because of its huge volume. Baikal was also declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996. Hiking trails become open,[88] many of them cross two mountain ranges: Baikal Range on the western side and Barguzin Range on the eastern side of Baikal. Baikal is home to thousands of species of plants and animals, many of them endemic to the region. 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