Emigré aux Etats-Unis en 1780, G. est professeur de français à Harvard (1781-1783), commerçant, puis fermier en Virginie (1784). [49] In 1811, Congress replaced the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 with a law known as Macon's Bill Number 2, which authorized the president to restore trade with either France or Britain if either promised to respect American neutrality. [16] He was in mourning for a number of years and seriously considered returning to Geneva. USA.gov, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration Gallatin did not join in the rebellion, but criticized the military response of the President George Washington's administration as an overreaction. In the aftermath of the war, he helped found the Second Bank of the United States. [72] Gallatin, Tennessee, the seat of Sumner County and Gallatin County, Kentucky are also named for Gallatin. Danach betätigte er sich … The Albert Gallatin Area School District, located in south western Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and having contained within Gallatin's home, Friendship Hill, is also named after Gallatin. The treaty did not address the issue of impressment, but that issue became a moot point after the British and their allies defeated Napoleon for a final time at the June 1815 Battle of Waterloo. [57] After the end of the war, Gallatin negotiated a commercial treaty providing for a resumption of trade between the United States and Britain. AKA Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin. [68] Due to his studies of the languages of the Native Americans, he has been called "the father of American ethnology." [18], In 1788, Gallatin was elected as a delegate to a state convention to discuss possible revisions to the United States Constitution. Albert Gallatin is a bronze statue by James Earle Fraser. [33] As Jefferson and Madison spent the majority of the summer months at their respective estates, Gallatin was frequently left to preside over the operations of the federal government. [34] He also acted as a moderating force on Jefferson's speeches and policies, in one case convincing Jefferson to refrain from calling for the abolition of the General Welfare Clause. [63] He was alarmed at the possibility Jackson might win, as he saw Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office." Jefferson had doubts about the constitutionality of the purchase, but Gallatin helped convince the president that a constitutional amendment authorizing the purchase was impractical and unnecessary. [6] Gallatin's family had great influence in the Republic of Geneva, and many family members held distinguished positions in the magistracy and the military. Soon after, open sessions became standard procedure for the Senate. Gallatin also championed and helped plan the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore lands west of the Mississippi River. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was an American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. [20], Gallatin won election to the Senate in early 1793, and he took his seat in December of that year. 45 East Main Street, Uniontown, PA 15401 Returning to Pennsylvania, Gallatin helped calm many angry farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion. He considered resigning from government service, but Madison convinced him to stay on as a key cabinet official and adviser. These diverse interests would help to distinguish Gallatin both as a financier and as a humanitarian. Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. [5] His parents were the wealthy Jean Gallatin and Jean's wife, Sophie Albertine Rollaz. [47] Overcoming Jefferson's declining popularity and the resentment at the embargo, Secretary of State Madison won the 1808 presidential election. [13] Gallatin inherited a significant sum of money the following year, and he used that money to purchase a 400-acre plot of land in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. In the mid-1840s, he opposed President James K. Polk's expansionist policies and wrote a widely-read pamphlet, Peace with Mexico, that called for an end to the Mexican–American War. [17] With most of his business ventures unsuccessful, Gallatin sold much of his land, excluding Friendship Hill, to Robert Morris; he and his wife would instead live in Philadelphia and other coastal cities for most of the rest of their lives. In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of Treasury, charging the new office with overseeing public lands. Albert Gallatin >Swiss-born Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) was U.S. secretary of the Treasury, >as well as a diplomat, banker, and ethnographer. 7955, citing Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana, USA ; Maintained by Find A Grave . He immigrated to the United States in the 1780s, settling in western Pennsylvania. He represented Pennsylvania in the Senate and the House of Representatives before becoming the longest-tenured United States Secretary of the Treasury and serving as a high-ranking diplomat. [10] Bored with monotonous Bostonian life, Gallatin and Serre set sail with a Swiss female companion to the settlement of Machias, located on the northeastern tip of the Maine frontier. The embargo proved ineffective at accomplishing its intended purpose of punishing Britain and France, and it contributed to growing dissent in New England against the Jefferson administration. He also noted that "the war has laid the foundation of permanent taxes and military establishments...under our former system we were becoming too selfish, too much attached exclusively to the acquisition of wealth...[and] too much confined in our political feelings to local and State objects." In response, Gallatin sent a letter to Madison, asking for permission to resign and criticizing the president for various actions, including his failure to take a strong stance on the national bank. [55], Negotiations at Ghent lasted for four months. He served as a delegate to the 1789 Pennsylvania constitutional convention and won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly. [25] The rebellion collapsed as the army moved near, and there was no fighting. However, with the American Revolution only a decade ended, the senators were leery of anything which might hint that they intended to establish an aristocracy, so they opened up their chamber for the first time for the debate over whether to unseat Gallatin. Jefferson sent James Monroe to Britain to negotiate a renewal and revision of the 1795 Jay Treaty, but Jefferson rejected the treaty that Monroe reached with the British. Albert had 3 siblings: Frances Stevens , Sophia Albertina Gallatin and Hannah Maria Gallatin . Albert Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland of an aristocratic family whose wealth allowed him to attend the elite Academy of Geneva. Although the national bank had been established as part of Hamilton's economic program, and Jefferson believed that it was "one of the most deadly hostility existing against the principles and form of our Constitution," Gallatin saw the national bank as a key part of the country's financial system. Gallatin was deeply displeased by the appointment of Smith, and he was frequently criticized by Smith's brother, Senator Samuel Smith, as well as journalist William Duane of the influential Philadelphia Aurora . Élete. Fils de Jean, négociant, et de Sophie Rolaz. [50] He was also unable to convince Congress to renew the charter of the First Bank of the United States (commonly known as the national bank). It is located north of the Treasury Building (Washington, D.C.), at 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Get Accredited Login Welcome to BBB Northwest + Pacific. Later research efforts include examination of selected Pueblo societies, the Akimel O'odham (Pima) peoples, and the Maricopa of the Southwest. Gallatin co-founded a company designed to attract Swiss settlers to the United States, but the company proved unable to attract many settlers. The firm is named in honor of Albert Gallatin, a native of Geneva, who came to the United States in 1780 at the age of 19, and later was Secretary of the Treasury in the cabinets of Presidents Jefferson and Madison, where he played a leading role in the Louisiana Purchase as well as the funding of the Lewis and Clark expedition. [66], Gallatin moved to New York City in 1828 and became president of the National Bank of New York the following year. Albert Gallatin (1761 - 1849) was an American statesman and scholar who served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 to 1814 under presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.Expert in finance, Gallatin designed and implemented Jeffersonian Republican fiscal policies by lowering taxes, reducing the national debt, and financing both the Louisiana Purchase and the War of … Throughout his later political career, Gallatin worked towards the peaceable resolution of the Northeastern Boundary Dispute (1783-1842) between the US and the British […] At Machias, Gallatin operated a bartering venture, in which he dealt with a variety of goods and supplies. Under Jefferson and James Madison, Gallatin served as secretary from 1801 until February 1814. [38] Burrows says of Gallatin: His own fears of personal dependency and his small-shopkeeper's sense of integrity, both reinforced by a strain of radical republican thought that originated in England a century earlier, convinced him that public debts were a nursery of multiple public evils—corruption, legislative impotence, executive tyranny, social inequality, financial speculation, and personal indolence. With the goal of selling land directly to settlers rather than to land speculators, Gallatin increased the number of federal land offices from four to eighteen. Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), an emigrant from Switzerland, was a leader of Pennsylvania’s Democratic-Republican party. Albert Gallatin. [ citation needed ]. Despite Gallatin's objection to the embargo, he was tasked with enforcing it against smugglers, who were able to evade the embargo in various ways. Gallatin is commemorated in the naming of a number of counties, roads, and streets, as well as through his association with New York University. In January 1773, Gallatin was sent to study at the elite Academy of Geneva. In 1805, despite his earlier constitutional reservations, Jefferson announced his support for federally-financed infrastructure projects. His service on the Ways and Means Committee earned him a strong reputation as an expert in finance and taxation. He built a stone house named Friendship Hill on the new property. [64] Ultimately, John Quincy Adams won the 1824 presidential election in a contingent election held in the House of Representatives. During the War of 1812, the national debt grew dramatically, going from $45 million in early 1812 to $127 million in January 1816. ... Albert Gallatin Municipal Authority. Albert Gallatin, was born in 1836 in New York and was the son of a shipping company owner. Declining another term at the Treasury, Gallatin served as Ambassador to France from 1816 to 1823, struggling with scant success to improve relations with the government during the Bourbon Restoration. Hinman has been represented to me as incapacitated by age & inattention to his duty.—Albert Gallatin” (RC in DNA: RG 59, LAR, 5:0316–18; Vol. Albert Gallatin He served his adopted country for 60 years as a congressional leader, Secretary of the Treasury, financier, ambassador and has been referred to as America’s Swiss Founding Father. While waiting abroad in the hope of future negotiations, Gallatin was replaced as Secretary of the Treasury by George W. Campbell, with the expectation that Gallatin would take up his old post upon his return to the United States. Gallatin retained much of Hamilton's financial system, though he also presided over a reduction in the national debt prior to the War of 1812. He attempted to persuade President Jackson to recharter the Second Bank of the United States, but Jackson vetoed a recharter bill and the Second Bank lost its federal charter in 1836. That act forbade all American ships from engaging in almost all foreign trade, and it remained in place until its repeal in the final days of Jefferson's presidency. Restrictions on Access. [69], The health of both Gallatin and his wife declined in the late 1840s, and Hannah died in May 1849. He became the chief spokesman on financial matters for the Democratic-Republican Party, leading opposition to the Federalist economic program. In 1831, Gallatin helped found New York University, and in 1843 he was elected president of the New–York Historical Society. Catherine, Sophia and Hannah Marie all died as infants. Gallatin never wanted the position and was humiliated when forced to withdraw from the race because he lacked popular support. [29] During the Quasi-War with France, Gallatin criticized military expenditures and opposed passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts. [60] While serving as ambassador to France, he helped negotiate the Rush–Bagot Treaty and the Treaty of 1818, two treaties with Britain that settled several issues left over from the War of 1812 and established joint Anglo-American over Oregon Country. That year, Gallatin accepted appointment as ambassador to Britain. [44] Many of Gallatin's other proposals were eventually carried out years later by state and local governments, as well as private actors. [61], Upon returning to the United States, Gallatin agreed to serve as William H. Crawford's running mate in the 1824 presidential election, but later withdrew from the race at Crawford's request. Congressman at, United States Minister to the United Kingdom, NYU's Gallatin School of Individualized Study, Albert Gallatin House; Friendship Hill National Historic Site, List of foreign-born United States Cabinet Secretaries, List of United States Senators born outside the United States, To James Madison from William Jones, 14 January 1813, How Britain Won the War of 1812: The Royal Navy's Blockades of the United States, 1812–1815, "Rush-Bagot Pact, 1817 and Convention of 1818", "A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes Within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, "Index to Politicians: Gallaher to Gallmeyer", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY ON THE SUBJECT OF PUBLIC ROADS AND CANALS", United States Senator (Class 1) from Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district, United States Secretaries of the Treasury, Ambassadors of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Center on the Administration of Criminal Law, Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, Journal of Intellectual Property and Entertainment Law, Journal of International Law and Politics, NYU Catherine B. Reynolds Program for Social Entrepreneurship, Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association, Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Archives, List of New York University honorary degree recipients, List of Presidents of New York University, Culture, Education, and Human Development, Mingo Creek Presbyterian Church and Churchyard, Lobb's Cemetery and Yohogania County Courthouse Site. [37] When Gallatin took office in 1801, the national debt stood at $83 million. [68] He drew upon government contacts to research Native Americans, gathering information through Lewis Cass, explorer William Clark, and Thomas McKenney of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. [54], In 1813, President James Madison sent Gallatin to St. Petersburg, Russia to serve as a negotiator for a peace agreement to end the War of 1812. The American statesman, Albert Gallatin, was born in Geneva on the 29th of January 1761. Efforts at starting negotiations in Russia quickly collapsed. The Gallatin School of Individualized Study at New York University honors his founding. YORK RUN -- Albert Gallatin isn't a team that's going to be pushed around this boys basketball season. His research led him to conclude that the natives of North and South America were linguistically and culturally related and that their common ancestors had migrated from Asia in prehistoric times. észak-amerikai államférfi és író. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Albert Gallatin Porter (20 Apr 1824–3 May 1897), Find a Grave Memorial no. [31], Gallatin's mastery of public finance made him the obvious choice as Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury; as Jefferson put it, Gallatin was "the only man in the United States who understands, through all the labyrinths Hamilton involved it, the precise state of the Treasury." In 1785, he became an American citizen after he swore allegiance to the state of Virginia. In December 1814, the two sides agreed to sign the Treaty of Ghent, which essentially represented a return to the status quo ante bellum. Albert Gallatin’s most popular book is THE WRITINGS OF ALBERT GALLATIN (1788-1816). Carrying letters of recommendation from eminent Americans (including Benjamin Franklin) that the Gallatin family procured, the young men left France in May, sailing on an American ship, "the Kattie". Gallatin's mastery of public finance made him the obvious choice as Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury; as Jefferson put it, Gallatin was "the only man in the United States who understands, through all the labyrinths Hamilton involved it, the precise state of the Treasury. In 1826 and 1827, he served as the ambassador to Britain and negotiated several agreements, such as a ten-year extension of the joint occupation of Oregon Country. Meade, T. A. He did, however, help convince Congress to charter the Second Bank of the United States as a replacement for the defunct First Bank of the United States. The Gallatins were both an old and a noble family. He is interred at Trinity Churchyard in New York City. In 1796, Gallatin published A Sketch on the Finances of the United States, which discussed the operations of the Treasury Department and strongly attacked the Federalist Party's financial program. Opposition from the Senate convinced Madison to retain Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury, and Robert Smith instead received the appointment as Secretary of State. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury.He was also a founder of New York University.. Contact Reference Services for more information. [41] Despite his opposition to debt, Gallatin strongly supported and arranged the financing for the Louisiana Purchase, in which the U.S. bought French Louisiana. As a public official, he aligned with Anti-Federalists and spent much of his time in the state and national capital of Philadelphia. The U.S. experienced some successes at sea, but were unable to break a British blockade of the United States. Gallatin was born in Geneva in present-day Switzerland and spoke French as a first language. Gallatin also forwarded a 10 Mch. ", CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, , Secretary of Treasury & U.S. Shortly afterwards, Madison replaced Secretary of State Smith with James Monroe, and Gallatin withdrew his resignation request. [30] In the contingent election that decided the outcome of the 1800 presidential election, Gallatin helped Thomas Jefferson secure victory over his ostensible running mate, Aaron Burr. [12], Gallatin disliked living in New England, instead preferring to become a farmer in the Trans-Appalachian West, which at that point was the frontier of American settlement. [65] Gallatin and his wife returned to Friendship Hill after the presidential election, living there until 1826. Mr. Gallatin mined for 1 year and then returned to Sacramento City where he learned that the true "gold " could be found on the streets. [70] On August 12, 1849, Gallatin died in Astoria, now in the Borough of Queens, New York at age 88. It is named after Albert Gallatin who was the former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, planner of the Lewis and Clark expedition, engineer of the financial details of the Louisiana Purchase and founder of New York University. Continuing our series on the Albert Gallatin Collection in the IHR library, this post explores a few interesting items relating to the often fraught relationship between the US and Canada in the early nineteenth century. The Gallatin River, named by the Lewis and Clark expedition, is one of three rivers (along with the Jefferson River and the Madison River) that converge near Three Forks, Montana to form the Missouri River. The British could have chosen to shift resources to North America after the temporary defeat of Napoleon in April 1814, but, as Gallatin learned from Alexander Baring, many in Britain were tired of fighting. Gallatin's mastery of public finance led to his choice as Secretary of the Treasury by President Thomas Jefferson, despite Federalist attacks that he was a "foreigner" with a French accent. [49], In 1810, Gallatin published Report on the Subject of Manufactures, in which he unsuccessfully urged Congress to create a $20 million federal loan program to support fledgling manufacturers. 1-86-NARA-NARA or 1-866-272-6272, National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), http://www.worldcat.org/title/albert-gallatin-papers-1783-1847/oclc/82919649. [11] Gallatin and Serre returned to Boston in October 1781 after abandoning their bartering venture in Machias. As with previous embargo policies pursued by the federal government under Jefferson and Madison, Macon's Bill Number 2 proved to be ineffective at halting the attacks on American shipping. Government Offices in Point Marion, PA. See BBB rating, reviews, complaints, & more. In the election of 1824, Gallatin was nominated for Vice President by the Democratic-Republican Congressional caucus. Gallatin developed a personal relationship with Cherokee tribal leader John Ridge, who provided him with information on the vocabulary and the structure of the Cherokee language. August 1849 in Astoria (heute Teil von Queens), New York)[1] war ein Genfer-amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratisch-Republikanische Partei), Ethnologe, Linguist und Diplomat. Albert Gallatin was born in … Albert Gallatin was born into an aristocratic Swiss family, but gave up fortune and social position and emigrated to America in 1780, where he might "drink in a love … ∞︎ 1) Sophie Allègre, fille de William, 2) 1794 Hannah Nicholson, fille de James. They reached Cape Ann on July 14 and arrived in Boston the next day, traveling the intervening thirty miles by horseback. Though he did not approve of the prevailing ideology of the Bourbon Restoration, Gallatin and his family enjoyed living in Paris. [59] Gallatin considered going into business with his longtime friend, John Jacob Astor, but ultimately he accepted appointment as ambassador to France. historic map by Albert Gallatin, of the western north america in 1836 with indian tribes . Literally. [45], Throughout much of Jefferson's presidency, France and Britain engaged in the Napoleonic Wars. 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